An Analytical Review of Parameters and Indices Affecting Decision Making in Agricultural Mechanization (Report)

1. Introduction AM could be described as application of the most locally appropriate tools, implements, machines, and approaches to make the most sustainable beneficial decisions. If AM is implemented in the right way, it will have a considerable effect on agricultural utilization. It will optimize inputs costs. Initial application of AM was tractor entrance to the land. But during last century or so, AM has found several interpretations; and the description was changed from tractorization to precision farming. This procedure gives evidence of AM maturity. In many parts of the world, AM has made a significant contribution to agricultural and rural development. Levels of production have increased, soil and water conservation measures were constructed, the profitability of farming improved, the quality of rural life enhanced, and development in the industrial and service sectors was stimulated (Bishop, 1997). Increasing land and labor efficiency by reducing the drudgery in farming operations bring in more land under cultivation, save energy and resources (seed, fertilizer, and water). Sustainable agricultural production, improving operators’ comfort, safety, and convenience, protecting the environment by allowing precision operations and increasing the overall income are AM goals (Salokhe and Ramalingam, 1998). Mechanization is generally used as an overall description of the application of tools, implements and powered machinery (Clarke, 1997). Inns (1995) mentioned that AM development depends on the farmers’ satisfaction and capability to identify opportunities for achieving sustainable benefits by improved and/or increased use of power and machinery, selecting the most worthwhile opportunity and carrying it through to successful implementation. Because of its obvious contribution, mechanical aspect of AM has been presented till now. But it was a progression of technological innovation that influenced all of society throughout the twentieth century (Foulke et al, 2000). Fernandes et al (2008) mentioned that even in high crowded populations, it can be difficult to attract or retain laborers to work in farm operations. Much of the stimulus for AM has come from laborer shortages in the more economically advanced countries. They described mechanization as tractorization. Mechanization reduces agricultural required labor and can reduce or remove the costs in countries which energy is cheap. But for poorer countries, mechanization forces increased costs caused by fuel, oil, engines and spares (Pretty, 2008). According to literatures, AM must consider all aspects of agriculture. In some ideas AM refers to tractorization, while others add agriculture machinery usage to mechanization domain. Reduction of labor costs is the other aim that some others focused on. Choosing and using the most appropriate tractors and machines is not possible without considering technical and economical criteria. On the other hand, unemployment due to machinery substitution may create problems in social relations and cultural crisis will occur if AM is not implemented according to local conditions. Likewise, environmental effects of AM are important. There are some expressions which are currently used to assess and compare the AM status for regions:

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