Attitudes and Satisfaction with a Hybrid Model of Counseling Supervision (Report)
The study of distance learning is a major focus in higher education (Anakwe, 1999; Benigno & Trentin, 2000; Davies & Mendenhall, 1998; DeBourgh, 1999) and an emerging concern among counseling related programs (Alterkruse & Brew, 2000; Bobby & Capone, 2000; Kjosness, 2002). The body of research examining the general satisfaction with distance learning, although mixed (Salas, Kosarzychi, Burke, Fiore, & Stone, 2002; Smith, 1999), does reflect a consensus about characteristics associated with student satisfaction (DeBourgh, 1999). These include clear course expectations, prompt response to student questions, encouragement of student participation, use of varied instructional techniques, access to the instructor, and timely feedback to students about their work. However, due to limited research, there is less agreement about what characteristics are associated with satisfaction among counselors-in-training concerning technology-mediated supervision (Janoff & Schoenholtz-Read, 1999). In spite of the limited research, there is growing support for the use of technology in training and supervision (Alpert, 1986; Casey, Bloom, & Moan, 1994; Christie, 1998; Lambert, Hedlund, & Vieweg, 1990; Myrick & Sabella, 1995). Olson, Russell, and White (2001) suggested using technology in supervision to meet the need for outreach to rural areas, for faculty who have limited time to supervise face-to-face, for increasing students’ access to qualified supervisors, and to manage the cost of supervision. Other advantages include removal of time and space restrictions, more time to reflect on information, and a permanent record for later reflection (Hara, Bonk, & Angeli, 2000).