Ethnic Identity Development in Early Adolescence: Implications and Recommendations for Middle School Counselors (Study)

The influence of ethnic identity development on adolescents’ achievement, self-concept, and behaviors has been reviewed extensively in the literature. However, the role that school counselors play in enhancing middle school students’ ethnic identity development has received little attention. This article reviews the definition of ethnic identity and J. S. Phinney’s (1992) model of adolescent ethnic identity development. J. E. Helms” (1994) model of racial identity interaction theory is used as a basis for understanding how ethnic identity development may influence student-to-student and student-to-teacher interactions in middle schools. And finally, recommendations for middle school counselors are presented. **********

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