The Transformative Individual School Counseling Model: An Accountability Model for Urban School Counselors.
The realities and needs of urban students, families, and educators have outgrown traditional individual counseling models. The American School Counselor Association’s National Model and National Standards and the Education Trust’s Transforming School Counseling Initiative encourage professional school counselors to shift roles toward implementing comprehensive developmental school counseling programs focused on systemic change to overcome institutional K-12 school barriers. This article reconceptualizes individual counseling as a collaborative act of advocacy and accountability used by professional school counselors and researchers to close achievement and opportunity gaps. The Transformative Individual School Counseling model utilizes a functional behavioral assessment approach to define problems; systemic, solution-focused, and narrative counseling approaches to address problems; and single-case study designs to document the effectiveness of interventions. **********